nobles_noble是什么意思 _noble是什么意思



2.古罗马斗兽场 英文简介 300字左右





       My Hometown Fuyang

       My hometown is Fuyang, a city in the northwest of Anhui province. It has a long history and a rich culture. It is also a beautiful and prosperous city with many attractions and specialties.

       Fuyang has a history of more than 1900 years. It was once called Ruyin, Shunchang, and Yingzhou in ancient times. It was the capital of some kingdoms and the territory of some nobles. It was also the birthplace of some famous figures, such as Gan Luo, Guan Zhong, Bao Shuya, Lu Meng, Liu Futong, Yan Shu, Ouyang Xiu, and Su Shi. Fuyang has a profound cultural heritage and many historical relics.

       Fuyang is also a scenic city with many natural and cultural landscapes. It has the Yingzhou West Lake, which was once as famous as the Hangzhou West Lake. It has the Baili River Scenic Area, which is a national 5A-level scenic spot with beautiful scenery and rich biodiversity. It has the Fuyang Ecological Park and the Digou Ecological Tourism Scenic Area, which are both national 4A-level scenic spots with various plants and animals. Fuyang also has some folk customs and festivals, such as the Huagu Lantern Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival.

       Fuyang is also a prosperous city with a developed economy and a convenient transportation. It has a strategic location at the junction of the Yangtze River Delta and the Central Plains urban agglomerations. It has been designated by the state as a key city for the integration of the Yangtze River Delta and the high-quality development of the central region, as well as a regional center city for the Huaihe Ecological Economic Belt and the Central Plains urban agglomeration. Fuyang has many industries, such as agriculture, manufacturing, trade, tourism, and education. It has many famous products, such as Fuyang paper-cutting, Yingshang Huagu Lanterns, Jieshou colored pottery, Funan willow weaving, etc.

       I love my hometown Fuyang very much. It is a place where I grew up and learned a lot. It is a place where I have many friends and relatives. It is a place where I can enjoy the beauty and diversity of nature and culture. I am proud of my hometown Fuyang and I hope it will become better and better in the future.

古罗马斗兽场 英文简介 300字左右



       Lisi (284 BC - 208 BC), a native of Shangcai, Runan (now Lislou Village, Lugang Township, Shangcai County, Henan Province). Famous politicians, writers and calligraphers in Qin Dynasty.

       李斯早年为郡小吏,师从荀子学习帝王之术。学成之后,入秦为官 ,丞相吕不韦以为郎官。

       In his early years, Li Si was a small official in the county. He learned the art of emperor from Xunzi. After learning it, he became an official in Qin Dynasty, and his prime minister, Lv Buwei, regarded him as a Lang Guan.?



       Cai Yong (133-192), Bo Zhe. Chen Liujun Meixian (now Qixian South of Henan Province) people. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Cai Wenji, a famous minister, writer and calligrapher, was the father of a gifted girl.


       After Dong Zhuo was slaughtered, Cai Yong was imprisoned for sighing at Wang Yunzuo. He soon died in prison at the age of sixty.



       Wang Xizhi (303-361, 321-379), a calligrapher in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, was known as the "Book Sage".


       His calligraphy is good at Li, Cao, Kai and Xing, studying body posture carefully, imitating and pursuing hand by hand, widely collecting all the advantages, preparing all kinds of body, melting into one furnace, getting rid of the style of writing in Han and Wei Dynasties, and becoming a family of its own with far-reaching influence.



       Su Shi (January 8, 1037, December 19, 1036 - August 24, 1101) is a famous writer, calligrapher and painter of the Northern Song Dynasty.



       Confucius (September 28, 551 BC - April 11, 479 BC), Zi's surname, Confucius, Mingqiu, Zhongni, a member of Luguo Haoyi (now Qufu, Shandong Province) in the late Spring and Autumn Period, was born in Liyi, Song Dynasty (now Xiayi, Henan Province), an ancient thinker, educator and founder of Confucianism.


       The Colosseum of Rome was the place where the slave owners, nobles and free people of the ancient Roman Empire watched the beast fight or the slave fight。

       Founded between 72 and 80 years ago,it is a symbol of ancient Roman civilization。The site is located in the centre of the Italian capital,Rome, south of Venice Square,near the ancient Roman market。

       From the appearance,it is round。 Covering an area of about 20,000 square meters,the long axis is about 188 meters, the short axis is about 156 meters, the circumference is about 527 meters,and the wall is about 57 meters high。This huge building can accommodate nearly 90,000 spectators。





       Tea – in Legend and HistoryThe actual origin of tea, as a drink, is not recorded in history, only in legend, but it is certain that it began in ancient China over 5,000 years ago. The story goes that an early Emperor named Shen Nung was visiting a distant part of his realm one day when serendipity caused a discovery that would spread in popularity all over the world.

       Emperor Shénnóng Shen Nung was said to be an excellent ‘creative’ ruler – a scientist and a patron of the arts. He was certainly well ahead of his time and in the interests of hygiene he commanded that all drinking water should be boiled. While on a visit to the extremities of his realm, he and the court stopped to rest. In accordance with his ruling the servants were busy boiling the drinking water when leaves from a nearby bush blew across the landscape and fell into the water and infused. As a scientist, the Emperor was interested in this new brown liquid and having drunk some, found it very refreshing – and so, according to this narrative, tea was born.

       All the Tea in ChinaFor thousands of years, ‘tea culture’ spread throughout Chinese life and philosophy and every area of society, but it was not until 800 A.D. that the scholar Lu Yu wrote the first definitive book on the subject, which was called the Ch'a Ching (Book of Tea). Lu Yu was an orphan raised by Buddhist monks in one of China's finest monasteries. He was both a rebel and a skilled observer who achieved acclaim as a performer. Later, for a period of five years he became a recluse, withdrawing into seclusion and using his vast experience of events and places in ancient China to log the various methods of tea cultivation and preparation. This huge project caught the attention of the Emperor, who gave him patronage. Lu Yu’s work was deeply influenced by his Zen Buddhist upbringing and he almost achieved sainthood in his lifetime. It was this influence that brought Zen Buddhism and tea drinking together.

       The Japanese ‘Tea Ceremony’ The value of tea for enhancing religious mediation in China was noticed by the Japanese Buddhist priest Yeisei, who took the first seeds back with him to Japan. He was thereafter known throughout Japan as the ‘Father of Tea’. The subtly captivating qualities of Tea were well received among members of the royal court, various monasteries and other sections of Japanese society. Since that time, tea in Japan has always been associated with Zen Buddhism.

       The Japanese Tea CeremonyTea’s presence as an aid to the calmer side of religious fervour made its transformation into philosophy and art an easy path. The Japanese Tea Ceremony was created, otherwise known as: ‘Cha-no-yu’ which translates as ‘the hot water for tea’. The Tea Ceremony required years of training and practice, even though "the whole art, signifies no more than the making and serving of a cup of tea. The supremely important matter is that the act be performed in the most perfect, most polite, most graceful, most charming manner possible". This description was written by the journalist-historian Lafcadio Hearn, who was granted Japanese citizenship during this era.

       As time went by, the original purity of the Zen and Tea concept was lost in a plethora of activity which surrounded the mystique of the heartwarming drink. These diversions included the introduction of a special form of architecture known as ‘chaseki’ for the construction of ‘tea houses’. Its concept was based on the simplicity of a forest cottage.

       A group of Geishi The Geishi began to specialize in the presentation of the tea ceremony too. Soon the intrinsically simple ceremony became corrupted by unnecessary embellishment, including ‘tea tournaments’, which were flamboyantly brash affairs, held among nobles. They were completely out of harmony with the Zen philosophy surrounding tea, or even what is considered the correct ritual in teashops today for that matter.

       Eventually harmony was restored through the influence of priests, who convinced the nobles that tea drinking was a calm, reflective affair – the sort of meditation aid one might use before battle. On this basis it could be seen as the ‘ultimate gift’ and was reintroduced into society and restored as a beautiful and respected ceremony.The ceremony's greatest practitioners have always been philosophers, but also artists, connoisseurs, collectors, gardeners, calligraphers, gourmets and flower-arrangers. The greatest of them, Sen Rikyu, left a tantalisingly simple set of rules: "Make a delicious bowl of tea; lay the charcoal so that it heats the water; arrange the flowers as they are in the field; in summer suggest coolness; in winter, warmth; do everything ahead of time; prepare for rain; and give to those with whom you find yourself, every consideration."

       Passage to EuropeTea came to Europe slowly – at first by rumour and whispers. The first European to ‘take tea’ and document it was the Portuguese Jesuit Father Jasper de Cruz in the 1550’s, when he was a missionary visiting China. Later, the Portuguese developed a trade route and shipped tea to Lisbon. This enterprise was repeated by the Dutch, who transported it to France, Holland and beyond.

       A ship of the 1650'sGreat Britain was the last of the three great sea-faring nations to benefit from the Chinese and East Indian trade routes. Tea first reached English shores between 1652 and 1654, soon proving popular enough to become the national drink – replacing ale. The following quotation by Agnes Reppiler sums this beautifully:"Tea had come as a deliverer to a land that called for deliverance; a land of beef and ale, of heavy eating and abundant drunkenness; of grey skies and harsh winds; of strong nerved , stout-purposed, slow-thinking men and women. Above all, a land of sheltered homes and warm firesides - firesides that were waiting - waiting for the bubbling kettle and the fragrant breath of tea."

       Tea was very fashionable in the Dutch capital, The Hague, when the price was high and only affordable by the rich. Eventually the volume of imports grew and the price fell. By 1675 it was available in food shops throughout Holland and spread into common use in France, remaining popular there for about fifty years before coffee took over.

       Meanwhile there had been a fierce debate among scholars and doctors about the benefits or otherwise of tea drinking, but nothing in this argument stopped tea becoming a way of life.

       The first mention of adding milk to tea was in 1680. During that period, Dutch inns provided the first 'service of tea'. Owners would furnish guests with a portable ‘tea set’ which they would take outside with them so tea could be prepared in the tavern gardens. Tea in AmericaThe Dutch influence on the transportation of tea ensured that it reached America. It was Peter Stuyvesant (1592-1672) who took the first tea to the colonists in the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam (later re-named New York).

       Peter Styvesant 1592-1672The Dutch settlers were avid tea drinkers and it was discovered at the time the English acquired the colony, that this relatively small settlement consumed more tea than all of England. Afternoon TeaThe mania for tea had swept across England soon after it had become popular in Holland and imports rose five fold between 1699 and 1708, but it was not until Anna, the Duchess of Bedford (1788-1861) decided that the "sinking feeling" she experienced in the late afternoon called for the adoption of the European idea of 'tea service' and created, what we now call ‘tea time’.She did this by inviting friends to join her for an additional summer meal at five o'clock in her rooms at Belvoir Castle. The menu was simply bread and butter sandwiches and small cakes. It proved so popular she took the idea back to London with her, and it soon caught on. Of course, the afternoon ritual was as much centred around conversation and gossip as food and drink.

       Eventually, two distinct forms of tea services evolved: ‘High Tea’ and ‘Low Tea’. Low tea being served in the ‘low’ part of the afternoon and was generally served in aristocratic homes of the wealthy, featuring tea and gourmet delights – again the emphasis was on presentation and conversation. ‘High' Tea, also know as ‘Meat Tea’, was served with the main meal of the day.

       The English Tea GardenThe idea of ‘Tea Gardens’ was inspired by Dutch ‘tavern garden teas’. Ladies and gentlemen took tea outdoors with entertainment and diversions, such as concerts, arbors, flowered walks, bowling greens and gambling.

       A typical colonial tea gardenWomen were permitted to enter mixed public gatherings for the first time without social criticism. It was at Tea Garden events that the custom of 'tipping' was developed as a method of ensuring prompt service. In fact, each table had a small wooden box with the letters ‘T.I.P.S.’ inscribed on them. The letters stood for: ‘To Insure Prompt Service’.

       cTea Gardens where highly popular in England throughout the twentieth century and although they are now somewhat scarce, they still remain popular today. Tea Rooms, Tea Courts, and Tea DancesIn the late 1880's, fine hotels in England and America began to offer ‘tea service’ in Tea Rooms and Tea Courts. Tea was served in the late afternoon to Victorian ladies and gentlemen who could meet for for tea, conversation and gossip in a socially acceptable way.

       A typical tea roomBy 1910, hotels began to host Tea Dances in the afternoon as various dance crazes began to rival the obsession for tea. These were very popular among younger people who used them to meet members of the opposite sex.


        01. Allegory(寓言)

        Allegory is a story told to explain or teach something. Especially a long and complicated story with an underlying meaning different from the surface meaning of the story itself.2>allegorical novels use extended metaphors to convey moral meanings or attack certain social evils. characters in these novels often stand for different values such as virtue and vice.3>Bunyan?s Pilgrim?s Progress, Melville?s Moby Dick are such examples.

        02. Alliteration(头韵)

        Alliteration means a repetition of the initial sounds of several words in a line or group.

        2>alliteration is a traditional poetic device in English literature.

        3>Robert Frost?s Acquainted with the Night is a case in point:? I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet?

        03. Ballad(民谣)

        Ballad is a story in poetic from to be sung or recited. in more exact literary terminology, a ballad is a narrative poem consisting of quatrains of iambic tetrameter alternating with iambic trimester.(抑扬格四音步与抑扬格三音步诗行交替出现的四行叙事诗)

        2>.ballads were passed down from generation to generation. 3>Coleridge?s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is a 19th century English ballad.

        04. epic(史诗)

        Epic, in poetry, refers to a long work dealing with the actions of goods and heroes.

        2>Epic poems are not merely entertaining stories of legendary or historical heroes; they summarize and express the nature or ideals of an entire nation at a significant or crucial period of its history.

        3>Beowulf is the greatest national Epic of the Anglo-Saxons.

        05. Lay(短叙事诗)

        It is a short poem, usually a romantic narrative, intended to be sung or recited by a minstrel.

        06. Romance(传奇)

        Romance is a popular literary form in the medic England.

        2>it sings knightly adventures or other heroic deeds.

        3>chivalry is the spirit of the romance.

        07. Alexandrine(亚历山大诗行)

        The name is derived from the fact that certain 12th and 13th century French poems on Alexander the Great were written in this meter.

        2>it is an iambic line of six feet, which is the French heroic verse.

        08. Blank Verse(无韵诗或素体广义地说)

        Blank verse is unrhymed poetry. Typically in iambic pentameter, and as such, the dominant verse forms of English dramatic and narrative poetry since the mid-16th century.

        09. Comedy(喜剧)

        Comedy is a light form of drama that aims primarily to amuse and that ends happily. Since it strives to provoke smile and laughter, both wit and humor are utilized. In general, the comic effect arises from recognition of some incongruity of speech, action, or character revelation, with intricate plot.

        10. Essay( 随笔 )

        The term refers to literary composition devoted to the presentation of the writer?s own ideas on a topic and generally addressing a particular aspect of the subject. Often brief in scope and informal in style, the essay differs from such fomal forms as the thesis, dissertation or treatise.

        11. Euphuistic style(绮丽体)

        Its principle characteristics are the excessive use of antithesis, which is pursued regardless of sense, and emphasized by alliteration and other devices; and of allusions to historical and mythological personages and to natural history drawn from such writers as Plutarch(普卢塔克), Pliny(普林尼), and Erasmus(伊拉兹马斯).2>it is the peculiar style of Euphues(优浮绮斯)

        12. History Plays(历史剧)

        History plays aim to present some historical age or character, and may be either a comedy or a tragedy. They almost tell stories about the nobles, the true people in history, but not ordinary people. the principle idea of Shakespeare?s history plays is the necessity for national unity under a mighty and just sovereign.

        13. Masques or Masks(假面剧)

        Masques (or Masks) refer to the dramatic entertainments involving dances and disguises, in which the spectacular and musical elements predominated over plot and character. As they were usually performed at court, often at very great expense, many have political overtones.

        14. Morality plays(道德剧)

        A kind of medic and early Renaissance drama that presents the conflict between the good and evil through allegorical characters. The characters tend to be personified abstractions of vices and virtues, which can be named as Mercy. Conscience, etc. unlike a mystery or a miracle play, morality play does not necessarily use Biblical or strictly religious material because it takes place internally and psychologically in every human being.


        It is a lyric poem of 14 lines with a formal or recited and characterized by its presentation of a dramatic or exciting episode in simple narrative form.

        2>it is one of the most conventional and influential forms of poetry in Europe.

        3>Shakespeare?s sonnets are well-known.

        16. Spenserian Stanza(斯宾塞诗节)

        Spenserian Stanza is the creation of Edmund spenser.2>it refers to a stanza of nine lines, with the first eight lines in iambic pentameter(五音步抑扬格) and the last line in iambic hexameter(六音步抑扬格),rhyming ababbcbcc. 3>Spenser?s the Faerie Queen was written in this kind of stanza.

        17. Stanza(诗节)

        Stanza is a group of lines of poetry, usually four or more, arranged according to a fixed plan.2>the stanza is the unit of structure in a poem and poets do not vary the unit within a poem.

        18. Three Unities(三一原则)

        Three rules of 16th and 17th century Italian and French drama, broadly adapted from Aristotle?s Poetics<诗学>:

        2>the unity of time, which limits a play to a single day; the unity of place, which limits a play?s setting in a single location; and the unity of action, which limits a play to a single story line.

        19. Tragedy(悲剧)

        In general, a literary work in which the protagonist meets an unhappy or disastrous end. Unlike comedy, tragedy depicts the actions of a central character who is usually dignified or heroic.


        Conceit is a far-fetched simile or metaphor, a literary conceit occurs when the speaker compares two highly dissimilar things.2>conceit is extensively employed in John Donne?s poetry.


        The word?meter? is derived from the Greek word?metron? meaning?measure?.

        2>in English when applied to poetry, it refers to the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.

        3>the analysis of the meter is called scansion(格律分析)

        22. University Wits(大学才子)

        University Wits refer to a group of scholars during the Elizabethan Age who graduated from either oxford or Cambridge. They came to London with the ambition to become professional writers. Some of them later became famous poets and playwrights. They were called? University Wits?


        Foreshadowing, the use of hints or clues in a novel or drama to suggest what will happen next. Writers use Foreshadowing to create interest and to build suspense.

        method used to build suspense by providing hints of what is to come.

        24. Soliloquy(独白)

        Soliloquy, in drama, means a moment when a character is alone and speaks his or her thoughts aloud..2>the line?to be, or not to be, that is the question?, which begins the famous soliloquy from Shakespeare?s Hamlet.

        25.Narrative Poem(叙述诗)

        Narrative Poem refers to a poem that tells a story in verse,

        2>three traditional types of narrative poems include ballads, epics, metrical romances.

        3>it may consist of a series of incidents, as John Milton?s paradise lost.

        26.Robin Hood(罗宾.豪)

        Robin hood is a legendary hero of a series of English ballads, some of which date from at least the 14th century.

        2>the character of Robin Hood is many-sided. Strong, brave and intelligent, he is at the same time tender-hearted and affectionate.

        3>the dominant key in his character is his hatred for the cruel oppression and his love for the poor and downtrodden.4>another feature of Robin?s view is his reverence for the king, Robin Hood was a people?s hero.

        27. Beowulf(贝奥武甫)

        Beowulf, a typical example of old English poetry, is regarded as the greatest national epic of t he Anglo-Saxons. 2>the epic describes the exploits of a Scandinavian hero, Beowulf, in fighting against the monster Grendel, his revengeful nother, and a fire-breathing dragon in his declining years. While fight against the dragon, Beowulf was mortally wounded, however, he killed the dragon at the cost of his life, Beowulf is shown not only as a glorious hero but also as a protector of the people.

        28. Baroque(巴罗克式风格)

        This is originally a term of abuse applied to 17th century Italian art and that of other countries. It is characterized by the unclassical use of classical forms, in a literary context; it is loosely used to describe highly ornamented verse or prose, abounding in extravagant conceits.

        这原本是用来指17世纪的意大利艺术和其他国家艺术滥用的一个术语.这种风格主要是指对古典形式的非古典运用.在文学领域,这种风格松散地用来指十分雕饰的,大量运用奇思妙想的诗歌或 散文 .

        29. Cavalier poets(骑士派诗人)

        A name given to supporters of Charles I in the civil war. These poets were not a formal group, but all influenced by Ben Jonson and like him paid little attention to the sonnet. Their lyrics are distinguished by short lines, precise but idiomatic diction, and an urbane and graceful wit.

        30. Elegy(挽歌)

        Elegy has typically been used to refer to reflective poems that lament the loss of something or someone, and characterized by their metrical form.

        31. Restoration Comedy(复辟时期喜剧)

        Restoration Comedy, also the comedy of manners, developed upon the reopening of the theatres after the re-establishment of monarchy with the return of Charles II.. Its predominant tone was witty, bawdy, cynical, and amoral. Standard characters include fops, bawds, scheming valets, country squires, and sexually voracious young widows and older women. The principle theme is sexual intrigue, either for its own sake or for money.



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